By Louis Williams, CPA, CFP®
Secure Act 2.0 has become a hot topic of discussion in recent months, as this piece of legislation includes several law changes that have the potential to impact our clients’ financial circumstances and opportunities. After spending some time reviewing the subject matter of Secure Act 2.0, we wanted to highlight some of the changes that we feel are most relevant.1
Delay of Required Minimum Distributions from Retirement Accounts
Congress passed a law in 2022 that pushed back the age for required minimum distributions (RMDs) from 70.5 to 72 as long as you turned 70.5 after January 1st, 2020. Secure Act 2.0 has delayed RMDs even further for those born in 1951 and later. Depending on one’s date of birth, the age at which RMDs are mandatory could be anywhere from 70.5 to 75. In an effort to simplify this topic, we have included a summary table below.
|Date of Birth||RMD Age|
|Before July 1st, 1949||70.5|
|July 1st,1949-December 31st, 1950||72|
|1960 or later||75|
Changes to the Catch-Up Contribution
The ‘catch-up’ contribution within employer 401(k) retirement plans refers to a contribution that is allowed for individuals nearing retirement, and it is allowed in addition to normal retirement plan contribution limits. For 2023, the catch-up contribution limit is $7,500 and applies to those who are at least 50 years of age at the end of calendar year. Beginning in 2025, individuals who are ages 60-63 at the end of the calendar year will have the option to contribute $10,000 (or 150% of the standard catch-up, whichever is greater) in an expanded catch-up contribution.2
An additional change to the catch-up contribution will only apply to those whose annual income exceeds $145,000. Currently, most employer plans offer the capacity to make catch-up contributions on either a pre-tax or Roth basis. Beginning in 2024, however, those who exceed $145,000 in annual income will only have the Roth option.2 Roth contributions are made on an after-tax basis, and thus this move will increase current tax revenues from a government perspective.
Other Retirement Plan Roth Opportunities
As the Roth tax designation continues to become more prevalent, Secure Act 2.0 provides additional Roth opportunities relating to retirement accounts.
Among these opportunities is the option to make Roth contributions within Simple IRAs and SEP IRAs, which are retirement plans that are generally reserved for small employers and self-employed persons, respectively. Historically, contributions made to plans of this nature have only been treated as pre-tax.
Employer contributions within 401(k) plans have also historically been treated as pre-tax and therefore are not immediately taxable to the participant. Secure Act 2.0 allows for employer plans to offer the option for employer contributions to be treated as Roth. This would trigger the taxability to the participant in the year the contribution is made. The benefit of Roth contributions of any kind is to promote tax-free growth rather than tax-deferred, and this option would need to be carefully considered within the context of an individual’s financial plan.
529 to Roth Conversions
529 education accounts have long been considered to be the most tax-efficient savings vehicle for future education costs. One of the drawbacks of 529 accounts is that there is generally a penalty applied to earnings withdrawn from an account when funds are not used for qualified education expenses. As a result, most are careful not to ‘overfund’ these accounts out of fear of being subjected to this penalty. Beginning in 2024, Secure Act 2.0 provides a potential solution to this risk.2 529 account holders who meet a specific set of requirements will have the opportunity to transfer 529 funds directly to a Roth IRA. Eligibility for this type of transfer will need to be carefully determined, but it is certainly an option that should be considered for those with 529 assets that exceed education needs.
This summary is in no way meant to be a comprehensive analysis of the entirety of Secure Act 2.0, but we hope that the detail in this article can identify areas by which one’s financial plan can be enhanced. As with any law changes, it will be important to consult a financial professional before implementing any changes in response to this legislation.
Louis Williams, CPA, CFP® is a financial advisor in the Birmingham office of Cahaba Wealth Management, www.cahabawealth.com.
The opinions in this material are for general information, and not intended to provide specific investment advice or recommendations for an individual. To determine which investment(s) may be appropriate for you, consult your financial advisor.
1For a complete Section by Section Summary of Secure Act 2.0, please visit https://www.finance.senate.gov/
2Secure Act 2.0 contains a number of important provisions that become effective in future years. We will continue to monitor these provisions for any new or clarifying legislation. The information in this article is as of March, 2023.